Hilliard Station Sixth Grade School Curriculum Summary

**LANGUAGE ARTS**

Our focus this school year will be learning and developing our skills as critical thinkers, readers, writers, speakers, and listeners. Reading standards will be taught through shared reading, guided reading, and read-alouds. Writing standards will be taught through daily writing practice and three formal pieces of writing: a narrative, an informational essay, and an argumentative essay.

**SCIENCE**

During sixth grade our curriculum focuses on three areas of science: Earth and Space Science, Physical Science and Life Science. In Earth and Space Science the topic we will focus on is Rocks, Minerals and Soil. This topic focuses on the study of rocks, minerals and soil, which make up the lithosphere. Classifying and identifying different types of rocks, minerals and soil can decode the past environment in which they formed. In Physical Science the topic will be Matter and Motion. This topic focuses on the study of foundational concepts of the particulate nature of matter, linear motion, and kinetic and potential energy. In Life Science the topic covered will be Cellular to Mulicellular. This topic focuses on the study of the basics of Modern Cell Theory. All organisms are composed of cells, which are the fundamental unit of life. Cells carry on the many processes that sustain life. All cells come from pre‐existing cells.

**SOCIAL STUDIES**

In grade six, students study the Eastern Hemisphere (Africa, Asia, Australia and Europe), its geographic features, early history, cultural development and economic change. Students learn about the development of river civilizations in Africa and Asia, including their governments, cultures and economic systems. The geographic focus includes the study of contemporary regional characteristics, the movement of people, products and ideas, and cultural diversity. Students develop their understanding of the role of consumers and the interaction of markets, resources and competition.

Ohio’s Academic Content Standards in Social Studies are made up of four strands.

• History • Geography • Government • Economics

Program Expectations: Students will…

- Apply the conventions of B.C. and A.D. (or B.C.E. and C.E.) to arrange and analyze events in chronological order on single and multiple-tier timelines.
- Evaluate the influence of geography on the development of unique civilizations in India, Egypt, China and Mesopotamia.
- Use appropriate maps, globes and geographic tools to gather, process and report information about people, places and environments.
- Understand how cultural perspective or bias information is communicated using multiple geographic tools.
- Use latitude and longitude coordinates to identify absolute location.
- Use data related to landform, climate, population and cultural and economic characteristics to describe, classifyand compare regions within the Eastern Hemisphere.
- Explain how variations among physical environments in the Eastern Hemisphere influence human activities there.
- Explain how the activities of humans have altered the physical environment of the Eastern Hemisphere.
- Analyze the impact of political, environmental, social and economic factors on the movement of people, productsand ideas in the Eastern Hemisphere.
- Explain how tradition and diffusion have influenced modern cultural practices and products in the Eastern Hemisphere.
- Describe the influence of religious diffusion in the modern world.
- Use a variety of historic and contemporary sources to obtain multiple perspectives on a topic.
- Examine a variety of sources for accuracy.
- Describe the relationship between those in power and individual citizens in a democracy, dictatorship, monarchy and theocracy.
- Understand that the characteristics of governments often overlap and can misrepresent the actual relationship between those governing and those being governed.
- Compare economic data sets to identify relationships and draw conclusions.
- Predict the present and future consequences of an economic decision and explain how individuals and societies may evaluate the choices differently.
- Explain how individuals and societies answer the fundamental questions for economics.
- Explain how specialization leads to global trade.
- Explain how supply, demand and competition interact to determine price.
- Explain how supply, demand and competition interact to influence quantities of inputs and outputs.
- Explain how individuals compare price and quality when selecting goods and services to buy.

**MATH**

In Grade 6, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) connecting ratio and rate to whole number multiplication and division and using concepts of ratio and rate to solve problems; (2) completing understanding of division of fractions and extending the notion of number to the system of rational numbers, which includes negative numbers; (3) writing, interpreting, and using expressions and equations; and (4) developing understanding of statistical thinking.

- Students use reasoning about multiplication and division to solve ratio and rate problems about quantities. By viewing equivalent ratios and rates as deriving from, and extending, pairs of rows (or columns) in the multiplication table, and by analyzing simple drawings that indicate the relative size of quantities, students connect their understanding of multiplication and division with ratios and rates. Thus students expand the scope of problems for which they can use multiplication and division to solve problems, and they connect ratios and fractions. Students solve a wide variety of problems involving ratios and rates.
- Students use the meaning of fractions, the meanings of multiplication and division, and the relationship between multiplication and division to understand and explain why the procedures for dividing fractions make sense. Students use these operations to solve problems. Students extend their previous understandings of number and the ordering of numbers to the full system of rational numbers, which includes negative rational numbers, and in particular negative integers. They reason about the order and absolute value of rational numbers and about the location of points in all four quadrants of the coordinate plane.

- Students understand the use of variables in mathematical expressions. They write expressions and equations that correspond to given situations, evaluate expressions, and use expressions and formulas to solve problems. Students understand that expressions in different forms can be equivalent, and they use the properties of operations to rewrite expressions in equivalent forms. Students know that the solutions of an equation are the values of the variables that make the equation true. Students use properties of operations and the idea of maintaining the equality of both sides of an equation to solve simple one‐step equations. Students construct and analyze tables, such as tables of quantities that are in equivalent ratios, and they use equations (such as 3x = y) to describe relationships between quantities.
- Building on and reinforcing their understanding of number, students begin to develop their ability to think statistically. Students recognize that a data distribution may not have a definite center and that different ways to measure center yield different values. The median measures center in the sense that it is roughly the middle value. The mean measures center in the sense that it is the value that each data point would take on if the total of the data values were redistributed equally, and also in the sense that it is a balance point. Students recognize that a measure of variability (interquartile range or mean absolute deviation) can also be useful for summarizing data because two very different sets of data can have the same mean and median yet be distinguished by their variability.Students learn to describe and summarize numerical data sets, identifying clusters, peaks, gaps, and symmetry, considering the context in which the data were collected. Students in Grade 6 also build on their work with area in elementary school by reasoning about relationships among shapes to determine area, surface area, and volume. They find areas of right triangles, other triangles, and special quadrilaterals by decomposing these shapes, rearranging or removing pieces, and relating the shapes to rectangles. Using these methods, students discuss, develop, and justify formulas for areas of triangles and parallelograms. Students find areas of polygons and surface areas of prisms and pyramids by decomposing them into pieces whose area they can determine. They reason about right rectangular prisms with fractional side lengths to extend formulas for the volume of a right rectangular prism to fractional side lengths. They prepare for work on scale drawings and constructions in Grade 7 by drawing polygons in the coordinate plane.

For a more detailed description visit Common Core State Standards Initiative Website at:

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